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Bears will fight in a bipedal stance to use their forelegs as weapons. A number of mammals will adopt a bipedal stance in specific situations such as for feeding or fighting. Ground squirrels and meerkats will stand on hind legs to survey their surroundings, but will not walk bipedally. Faith can stand or move on two legs if trained, or if birth defect or injury precludes quadrupedalism. The gerenuk antelope stands on its hind legs while eating from trees, as did the extinct giant ground sloth and chalicotheres.
The spotted skunk will walk on its front legs when threatened, rearing up on its front legs while facing the attacker so that its anal glands , capable of spraying an offensive oil, face its attacker. Bipedalism is unknown among the amphibians.
Among the non- archosaur reptiles bipedalism is rare, but it is found in the 'reared-up' running of lizards such as agamids and monitor lizards.
Many reptile species will also temporarily adopt bipedalism while fighting. Among arthropods , cockroaches are known to move bipedally at high speeds. There are at least twelve distinct hypotheses as to how and why bipedalism evolved in humans, and also some debate as to when. Bipedalism evolved well before the large human brain or the development of stone tools. This dimorphism has been seen as an evolutionary adaptation of females to bear lumbar load better during pregnancy , an adaptation that non-bipedal primates would not need to make.
In addition to the change in shoulder stability, changing locomotion would have increased the demand for shoulder mobility, which would have propelled the evolution of bipedalism forward. It is important to distinguish between adaptations for bipedalism and adaptations for running, which came later still. Numerous causes for the evolution of human bipedalism involve freeing the hands for carrying and using tools, sexual dimorphism in provisoning, changes in climate and environment from jungle to savanna that favored a more elevated eye-position, and to reduce the amount of skin exposed to the tropical sun.
For example, the postural feeding hypothesis describes how the earliest hominins became bipedal for the benefit of reaching food in trees while the savanna-based theory describes how the late hominins that started to settle on the ground became increasingly bipedal. Napier argued that it was very unlikely that a single factor drove the evolution of Bipedalism. He stated " It seems unlikely that any single factor was responsible for such a dramatic change in behaviour. In addition to the advantages of accruing from ability to carry objects - food or otherwise - the improvement of the visual range and the freeing of the hands for purposes of defence and offence must equally have played their part as catalysts.
Why were the earliest hominins partially bipedal 2. He argues that these questions can be answered with combination of prominent theories such as Savanna-based, Postural feeding, and Provisioning. According to the Savanna-based theory, hominines descended from the trees and adapted to life on the savanna by walking erect on two feet. The theory suggests that early hominids were forced to adapt to bipedal locomotion on the open savanna after they left the trees. This theory is closely related to the knuckle-walking hypothesis, which states that human ancestors used quadrupedal locomotion on the savanna, as evidenced by morphological characteristics found in Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis forelimbs, and that it is less parsimonious to assume that knuckle walking developed twice in genera Pan and Gorilla instead of evolving it once as synapomorphy for Pan and Gorilla before losing it in Australopithecus.
Wheeler's "The evolution of bipedality and loss of functional body hair in hominids", that a possible advantage of bipedalism in the savanna was reducing the amount of surface area of the body exposed to the sun, helping regulate body temperature. Rather, the bipedal adaptation hominines had already achieved was used in the savanna. The fossil evidence reveals that early bipedal hominins were still adapted to climbing trees at the time they were also walking upright. Humans and orangutans are both unique to a bipedal reactive adaptation when climbing on thin branches, in which they have increased hip and knee extension in relation to the diameter of the branch, which can increase an arboreal feeding range and can be attributed to a convergent evolution of bipedalism evolving in arboreal environments.
However, fossilization is a rare occurrence—the conditions must be just right in order for an organism that dies to become fossilized for somebody to find later, which is also a rare occurrence. The fact that no hominine fossils were found in forests does not ultimately lead to the conclusion that no hominines ever died there. The convenience of the savanna-based theory caused this point to be overlooked for over a hundred years. Some of the fossils found actually showed that there was still an adaptation to arboreal life.
Ancient pollen found in the soil in the locations in which these fossils were found suggest that the area used to be much more wet and covered in thick vegetation and has only recently become the arid desert it is now. An alternative explanation is the mixture of savanna and scattered forests increased terrestrial travel by proto-humans between clusters of trees, and bipedalism offered greater efficiency for long-distance travel between these clusters than quadrupedalism.
The postural feeding hypothesis has been recently supported by Dr. Kevin Hunt, a professor at Indiana University. While on the ground, they would reach up for fruit hanging from small trees and while in trees, bipedalism was used to reach up to grab for an overhead branch. These bipedal movements may have evolved into regular habits because they were so convenient in obtaining food.
Also, Hunt's hypotheses states that these movements coevolved with chimpanzee arm-hanging, as this movement was very effective and efficient in harvesting food. When analyzing fossil anatomy, Australopithecus afarensis has very similar features of the hand and shoulder to the chimpanzee, which indicates hanging arms. Also, the Australopithecus hip and hind limb very clearly indicate bipedalism, but these fossils also indicate very inefficient locomotive movement when compared to humans.
For this reason, Hunt argues that bipedalism evolved more as a terrestrial feeding posture than as a walking posture. A similar study conducted by Thorpe et al. They hypothesized that increased fragmentation of forests where A. Their findings also shed light on a couple of discrepancies observed in the anatomy of A. The idea that bipedalism started from walking in trees explains both the increased flexibility in the ankle as well as the long limbs which would be used to grab hold of branches.
One theory on the origin of bipedalism is the behavioral model presented by C. Owen Lovejoy , known as "male provisioning". In the face of long inter-birth intervals and low reproductive rates typical of the apes, early hominids engaged in pair-bonding that enabled greater parental effort directed towards rearing offspring.
Lovejoy proposes that male provisioning of food would improve the offspring survivorship and increase the pair's reproductive rate. Thus the male would leave his mate and offspring to search for food and return carrying the food in his arms walking on his legs. This model is supported by the reduction "feminization" of the male canine teeth in early hominids such as Sahelanthropus tchadensis  and Ardipithecus ramidus ,  which along with low body size dimorphism in Ardipithecus  and Australopithecus ,  suggests a reduction in inter-male antagonistic behavior in early hominids.
However, this model has generated some controversy, as others have argued that early bipedal hominids were instead polygynous. Among most monogamous primates, males and females are about the same size. That is sexual dimorphism is minimal, and other studies have suggested that Australopithecus afarensis males were nearly twice the weight of females. However, Lovejoy's model posits that the larger range a provisioning male would have to cover to avoid competing with the female for resources she could attain herself would select for increased male body size to limit predation risk.
Modern monogamous primates such as gibbons tend to be also territorial, but fossil evidence indicates that Australopithecus afarensis lived in large groups. However, while both gibbons and hominids have reduced canine sexual dimorphism, female gibbons enlarge 'masculinize' their canines so they can actively share in the defense of their home territory. Instead, the reduction of the male hominid canine is consistent with reduced inter-male aggression in a group living primate.
Recent studies of 4. According to Richard Dawkins in his book " The Ancestor's Tale ", chimps and bonobos are descended from Australopithecus gracile type species while gorillas are descended from Paranthropus. These apes may have once been bipedal, but then lost this ability when they were forced back into an arboreal habitat, presumably by those australopithecines from whom eventually evolved hominins.
Early homininaes such as Ardipithecus ramidus may have possessed an arboreal type of bipedalism that later independently evolved towards knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and gorillas  and towards efficient walking and running in modern humans see figure. It is also proposed that one cause of Neanderthal extinction was a less efficient running. Joseph Jordania from the University of Melbourne recently suggested that bipedalism was one of the central elements of the general defense strategy of early hominids, based on aposematism , or warning display and intimidation of potential predators and competitors with exaggerated visual and audio signals.
According to this model, hominids were trying to stay as visible and as loud as possible all the time. Several morphological and behavioral developments were employed to achieve this goal: There are a variety of ideas which promote a specific change in behaviour as the key driver for the evolution of hominid bipedalism. Dart have offered the idea that the need for more vigilance against predators could have provided the initial motivation. And it has even been suggested e. The thermoregulatory model explaining the origin of bipedalism is one of the simplest theories so far advanced, but it is a viable explanation.
Peter Wheeler, a professor of evolutionary biology, proposes that bipedalism raises the amount of body surface area higher above the ground which results in a reduction in heat gain and helps heat dissipation. During heat seasons, greater wind flow results in a higher heat loss, which makes the organism more comfortable. Also, Wheeler explains that a vertical posture minimizes the direct exposure to the sun whereas quadrupedalism exposes more of the body to direct exposure. Analysis and interpretations of Ardipithecus reveal that this hypothesis needs modification to consider that the forest and woodland environmental preadaptation of early-stage hominid bipedalism preceded further refinement of bipedalism by the pressure of natural selection.
This then allowed for the more efficient exploitation of the hotter conditions ecological niche , rather than the hotter conditions being hypothetically bipedalism's initial stimulus. A feedback mechanism from the advantages of bipedality in hot and open habitats would then in turn make a forest preadaptation solidify as a permanent state. Charles Darwin wrote that "Man could not have attained his present dominant position in the world without the use of his hands, which are so admirably adapted to the act of obedience of his will".
Gordon Hewes suggested that the carrying of meat "over considerable distances" Hewes Isaac and Sinclair et al. Others, such as Nancy Tanner , have suggested that infant carrying was key, while others again have suggested stone tools and weapons drove the change. Wooden tools and spears fossilize poorly and therefore it is difficult to make a judgment about their potential usage.
The observation that large primates, including especially the great apes, that predominantly move quadrupedally on dry land, tend to switch to bipedal locomotion in waist deep water, has led to the idea that the origin of human bipedalism may have been influenced by waterside environments. This idea, labelled "the wading hypothesis",  was originally suggested by the Oxford marine biologist Alister Hardy who said: Since Carsten Niemitz has published a series of papers and a book  on a variant of the wading hypothesis, which he calls the "amphibian generalist theory" German: Other theories have been proposed that suggest wading and the exploitation of aquatic food sources providing essential nutrients for human brain evolution  or critical fallback foods  may have exerted evolutionary pressures on human ancestors promoting adaptations which later assisted full-time bipedalism.
It has also been thought that consistent water-based food sources had developed early hominid dependency and facilitated dispersal along seas and rivers. The consequences of these two changes in particular resulted in painful and difficult labor due to the increased favor of a narrow pelvis for bipedalism being countered by larger heads passing through the constricted birth canal. This phenomenon is commonly known as the obstetrical dilemma. Bipedal movement occurs in a number of ways, and requires many mechanical and neurological adaptations. Some of these are described below.
Energy-efficient means of standing bipedally involve constant adjustment of balance, and of course these must avoid overcorrection. The difficulties associated with simple standing in upright humans are highlighted by the greatly increased risk of falling present in the elderly, even with minimal reductions in control system effectiveness. Shoulder stability would decrease with the evolution of bipedalism. Shoulder mobility would increase because the need for a stable shoulder is only present in arboreal habitats. Shoulder mobility would support suspensory locomotion behaviors which are present in human bipedalism.
The forelimbs are freed from weight-bearing requirements, which makes the shoulder a place of evidence for the evolution of bipedalism. Walking is characterized by an "inverted pendulum" movement in which the center of gravity vaults over a stiff leg with each step. In humans, walking is composed of several separate processes: Running is characterized by a spring-mass movement. Bipedalism requires strong leg muscles, particularly in the thighs.
Contrast in domesticated poultry the well muscled legs, against the small and bony wings. Likewise in humans, the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of the thigh are both so crucial to bipedal activities that each alone is much larger than the well-developed biceps of the arms. A biped has the ability to breathe while running, without strong coupling to stride cycle.
Humans usually take a breath every other stride when their aerobic system is functioning. During a sprint the anaerobic system kicks in and breathing slows until the anaerobic system can no longer sustain a sprint. For nearly the whole of the 20th century, bipedal robots were very difficult to construct and robot locomotion involved only wheels, treads, or multiple legs. Recent cheap and compact computing power has made two-legged robots more feasible.
Recently, spurred by the success of creating a fully passive, un-powered bipedal walking robot,  those working on such machines have begun using principles gleaned from the study of human and animal locomotion, which often relies on passive mechanisms to minimize power consumption. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the film, see Bipedality film. Life timeline and Nature timeline. Human skeletal changes due to bipedalism. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The first mention of a pub on the site is In the same neighbourhood Cecil Court has an entirely different character than the two previous alleys, and is a spacious pedestrian street with Victorian shop-frontages that links Charing Cross Road with St Martin's Lane , and it is sometimes used as a location by film companies.
One of the older thoroughfares in Covent Garden , Cecil Court dates back to the end of the 17th century. A tradesman's route at its inception, it later acquired the nickname Flicker Alley because of the concentration of early film companies in the Court. Since the s it has been known as the new Booksellers' Row as it is home to nearly twenty antiquarian and second-hand independent bookshops. It was the temporary home of an eight-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart while he was touring Europe in For almost four months the Mozart family lodged with barber John Couzin. North of the centre of London, Camden Passage is a pedestrian passage off Upper Street in the London Borough of Islington , famous because of its many antiques shops, and an antique market on Wednesdays and Saturday mornings.
It was built, as an alley, along the backs of houses on Upper Street, then Islington High Street, in In Scotland and Northern Ireland the Scots terms close , wynd , pend and vennel are general in most towns and cities. The term close has an unvoiced "s" as in sad. Close is the generic Scots term for alleyways, although they may be individually named closes, entries, courts and wynds. Originally, a close was private property, hence gated and closed to the public.
A wynd is typically a narrow lane between houses, an open throughway, usually wide enough for a horse and cart. The word derives from Old Norse venda , implying a turning off a main street, without implying that it is curved. In many places wynds link streets at different heights and thus are mostly thought of as being ways up or down hills. A pend is a passageway that passes through a building, often from a street through to a courtyard , and typically designed for vehicular rather than exclusively pedestrian access.
A vennel is a passageway between the gables of two buildings which can in effect be a minor street in Scotland and the north east of England , particularly in the old centre of Durham. In Scotland, the term originated in royal burghs created in the twelfth century, the word deriving from the Old French word venelle meaning "alley" or "lane". Unlike a tenement entry to private property, known as a "close", a vennel was a public way leading from a typical high street to the open ground beyond the burgage plots.
The traboules of Lyon are passageways that cut through a house or, in some cases, a whole city block, linking one street with another. They are distinct from most other alleys in that they are mainly enclosed within buildings and may include staircases. The word traboule comes from the Latin trans ambulare , meaning "to cross", and the first of them were possibly built as early as the 4th century.
For centuries they were used by people to fetch water from the river and then by craftsmen and traders to transport their goods. Most traboules are on private property, serving as entrances to local apartments. The common Italian word for an alley is vicolo. Venice is largely a traffic free city and there is, in addition to the canals, a maze of around lanes and alleys called calli which means narrow. Their width varies from just over 50 centimetres The narrowest is Calletta Varisco, which just 53 centimetres The main ones are also called salizada and wider calli , where trade proliferates, are called riga' , while blind calli , used only by residents to reach their homes, are ramo.
Lintgasse is an alley German: It is a pedestrian zone and though only some metres long, is nevertheless famous for its medieval history. The Lintgasse was first mentioned in the 12th century as in Lintgazzin , which may be derived from basketmakers who wove fish baskets out of Linden tree barks. These craftsmen were called Lindslizer , meaning Linden splitter. Lintgasse 8 to 14 used to be homes of medieval knights as still can be seen by signs like Zum Huynen , Zum Ritter or Zum Gir. The town dates back to the 13th century, with medieval alleyways, cobbled streets, and historic buildings.
North German architecture has had a strong influence in the Old Town's buildings. Some of Stockholm's alleys are very narrow pedestrian footpaths , while others are very narrow, cobbled streets, or lanes open to slow moving traffic. According to sources from the late 16th century, he was dealing in first iron and later copper, by had sworn his burgher oath, and was later to become one of the richest merchants in Stockholm. Closed off in the mid 19th century, not to be reopened until , its present name was officially sanctioned by the city in The " List of streets and squares in Gamla stan " provides links to many pages that describe other alleys in the oldest part of Stockholm; e.
In Beijing, hutongs are alleys formed by lines of siheyuan , traditional courtyard residences. The word hutong is also used to refer to such neighbourhoods. The term "hutong" appeared first during the Yuan Dynasty , and is a term of Mongolian origin meaning "town". The traditional arrangement of hutongs was also affected. Many new hutongs, built haphazardly and with no apparent plan, began to appear on the outskirts of the old city, while the old ones lost their former neat appearance. Many residents left the lanes where their families lived for generations for apartment buildings with modern amenities.
In Xicheng District , for example, nearly hutongs out of the it held in have disappeared. Many hutongs, some several hundred years old, in the vicinity of the Bell Tower and Drum Tower and Shichahai Lake are preserved amongst recreated contemporary two- and three-storey versions. Hutongs represent an important cultural element of the city of Beijing and the hutongs are residential neighborhoods which still form the heart of Old Beijing.
At its narrowest section, Qianshi Hutong near Qianmen Front Gate is only 40 centimeters 16 inches wide. The Shanghai longtang is loosely equivalent to the hutong of Beijing. As with the term hutong, the Shanghai longdang can either refers to the lanes that the houses face onto, or a group of houses connected by the lane. It is composed of a network of six narrow alleys, connected by even narrower passageways which are just about wide enough for a single person to pass through. Over tiny shanty-style bars, clubs and eateries are squeezed into this area.
Its architectural importance is that it provides a view into the relatively recent past of Tokyo, when large parts of the city resembled present-day Golden Gai, particularly in terms of the extremely narrow lanes and the tiny two-storey buildings. Nowadays, most of the surrounding area has been redeveloped. Typically, the buildings are just a few feet wide and are built so close to the ones next door that they nearly touch.
Most are two-storey, having a small bar at street level and either another bar or a tiny flat upstairs, reached by a steep set of stairs. None of the bars are very large; some are so small that they can only fit five or so customers at one time. However, Golden Gai is not a cheap place to drink, and the clientele that it attracts is generally well off. Golden Gai is well known as a meeting place for musicians, artists, directors, writers, academics and actors, including many celebrities.
Many of the bars only welcome regular customers, who initially should be introduced by an existing patron, although many others welcome non-regulars, some even making efforts to attract overseas tourists by displaying signs and price lists in English. Golden Gai was known for prostitution before , when prostitution became illegal. Since then it has developed as a drinking area, and at least some of the bars can trace their origins back to the s. See the Lanes and arcades of Melbourne and Perth. A medina quarter Arabic: The medina is typically walled, contains many narrow and maze-like streets.
Because of the very narrow streets, medinas are generally free from car traffic, and in some cases even motorcycle and bicycle traffic. The streets can be less than a metre wide. This makes them unique among highly populated urban centres. The Medina of Fes , Morocco or Fes el Bali , is considered one of the largest car-free urban areas in the world. Al-Yasmeen alley in al-Jdayde , Aleppo , Syria. Centre Place in Melbourne.
Medina Tripoli , Libya. A narrow Vicolo, Orvieto , Umbria Italy. Schnoor neighbourhood in Bremen , Germany. Alley in Chefchaouen , Morocco. Shop fronts inside the Burlington Arcade , London, England. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the videogame, see Alleyway video game. For the surname, see Alley surname. An alley in Fira , Santorini , Greece. Howey Place, Melbourne , Australia. Hagay Street, Old City Jerusalem. Rua Sobre-o-Douro, Porto , Portugal.
A narrow calle in Venice , Italy. History, Theory and Politics, Sage, , p. Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved February 15, The Washington Post 27 January p. The Buildings of Charleston: A Guide to the City's Architecture. Retrieved 17 May Are Manhattan's Right Angles Wrong? Retrieved 14 January Archived from the original on 1 January Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 1 May Archived copy as title link.
Communities" Archived 23 September at the Wayback Machine. Brydges Place; "London's narrowest alley": Retrieved 30 July Institute of Historical Research. The Annals of London. University of California Press. Retrieved 2 August Growth , A History of the County of Middlesex: Islington and Stoke Newington parishes , pp. Retrieved 1 Jan Archived from the original PDF on 24 September Retrieved 10 February Posted on 19 May . David Wilson, Staffordshire Dialect Words: Moorland Publishing Company, The Place Names of Edinburgh.