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Famous people who are simply rumored to be gay, lesbian or bisexual, are not listed. "CTV anchor (and out gay man) Seamus O'Regan to leave Canada AM for CTV National News". "Gay chat room killer sentenced in North Carolina". Mandan's best % FREE gay dating site. Want to meet single gay men in Mandan, North Dakota? Mingle2's gay Mandan personals are the free and easy way. Patti Davis, Ronald Reagan's daughter, recently speculated on where her As Davis notes, "He did not have prejudices against gay people.
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O'Connor would later take more moderate positions. In , during his second term, the president elevated Justice William Rehnquist to succeed outgoing Chief Justice Warren Burger and named Antonin Scalia to occupy the seat left by Rehnquist. Within 45 minutes of Bork's nomination to the Court, Ted Kennedy D-MA took to the Senate floor with a strong condemnation of Bork in a nationally televised speech, declaring,. The rapid response of Kennedy's "Robert Bork's America" speech stunned the Reagan White House; though conservatives considered Kennedy's accusations slanderous ideological smears on a well qualified candidate for the bench,  the attacks went unanswered for two and a half months.
Reagan also nominated a large number of judges to the United States district court and United States court of appeals benches; most of these nominations were not controversial, although a handful of candidates were singled out for criticism by civil rights advocates and other liberal critics, resulting in occasional confirmation fights. Both his Supreme Court nominations and his lower court appointments were in line with Reagan's express philosophy that judges should interpret law as enacted and not "legislate from the bench".
By the end of the s, a conservative majority on the Supreme Court had put an end to the perceived "activist" trend begun under the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren. Wade of the previous three decades still standing as binding precedent. Reagan appointed 83 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals , and judges to the United States district courts. His total of appointments is the most by any president.
Domestic policy of the Ronald Reagan administration - Wikipedia
However, he also experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies , as nine nominees for various federal appellate judgeships were not confirmed.
In some cases, the nominations were not processed by the Democratic -controlled Senate Judiciary Committee before Reagan's presidency ended, while in other cases, nominees were rejected by the Senate Judiciary Committee or even blocked by unfriendly members of the Republican Party. Perhaps the greatest criticism surrounds Reagan's silence about the AIDS epidemic spreading in the s. During the press conference in , Reagan expressed skepticism in allowing children with AIDS to continue in school although he supported their right to do so, stating:.
I can well understand the plight of the parents and how they feel about it. I also have compassion, as I think we all do, for the child that has this and doesn't know and can't have it explained to him why somehow he is now an outcast and can no longer associate with his playmates and schoolmates. On the other hand, I can understand the problem with the parents. It is true that some medical sources had said that this cannot be communicated in any way other than the ones we already know and which would not involve a child being in the school.
And yet medicine has not come forth unequivocally and said, This we know for a fact, that it is safe. And until they do, I think we just have to do the best we can with this problem. I can understand both sides of it. The CDC had previously issued a report stating that "casual person-to-person contact as would occur among schoolchildren appears to pose no risk.
Until celebrities, first Joan Rivers , and soon afterwards Elizabeth Taylor spoke out publicly about the increasing number of people quickly dying from this new disease, most public officials and celebrities were too afraid of dealing with this subject. Reagan prevented his Surgeon General , C. This approach brought Koop into conflict with other administration officials such as Education Secretary William Bennett.
This information included the use of condoms as the decisive defense against contracting the disease. Supporters of Reagan past and present have pointed out the fact that he declared in the aforementioned September press conference that he wanted from Congress massive government research effort against AIDS similar to one President Nixon had overseen against cancer. Reagan said, "It's been one of the top priorities with us, and over the last 4 years, and including what we have in the budget for '86, it will amount to over a half a billion dollars that we have provided for research on AIDS in addition to what I'm sure other medical groups are doing.
No civil rights legislation for lesbian or gay individuals passed during Reagan's tenure. On the campaign trail , he spoke of the gay civil rights movement:. Reagan gave a States' Rights speech at the Neshoba County Fair in Philadelphia, Mississippi , the town where the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner occurred in , when running for president in many politicians had spoken at that annual Fair, however.
Reagan was offended that some accused him of racism. In Reagan said the Voting Rights Act was "humiliating to the South", although he later supported extending the Act. Reagan was unsuccessful in trying to veto another civil rights bill in March of the same year. At first Reagan opposed the Martin Luther King holiday , and signed it only after an overwhelming veto-proof majority to 90 in the House of Representatives and 78 to 22 in the Senate voted in favor of it. Reagan said the Restoration Act would impose too many regulations on churches, the private sector and state and local governments.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization Ronald Wilson Reagan ". Retrieved November 23, Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved March 21, The New York Times. Retrieved January 12, Archived from the original on January 4, Bureau of Economic Analysis. United States Department of the Treasury.
Working Paper 81, Table 2. Archived from the original PDF on November 22, Retrieved November 28, Making Economic Sense 2nd ed. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Four Reasons why it Just Doesn't Work". Retrieved March 31, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Retrieved April 8, The Culture of Contentment. Retrieved September 8, Retrieved May 25, Presidency — Domestic policies".
Retrieved August 21, Retrieved August 4, Retrieved July 31, Retrieved August 15, Why the Government is a Menace to Economic Health. Retrieved November 6, Cars and Light Trucks". Retrieved December 21, Retrieved July 1, Committee for Economic Development. Archived from the original PDF on February 3, Retrieved May 16, Retrieved July 22, Retrieved May 11, Is Upheld - NYTimes. Housing and Urban Development". How We Got Here: Retrieved May 13, Retrieved December 28, Politics and Economics in the Eighties. University of Chicago Press. The Reagan Defense Build Up".
The American Political Science Review. Ronald Reagan's Military Buildup, ". Retrieved March 24, The Christian Science Monitor. The Online Journal of Discourse Leadership. Retrieved July 10, Retrieved April 4, High School and Youth Trends". The University of Dayton School of Law. Retrieved April 11, Retrieved June 12, The politics of the Reagan years and the Bush years probably made it somewhat harder to get treatment expanded, but at the same time, it probably had a good effect in terms of decreasing initiation and use.
For example, marijuana went from thirty-three percent of high-school seniors in to twelve percent in The Regents of the University of Michigan. Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 5, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 28, Retrieved August 10, Archived from the original on November 3, Retrieved 23 March Making a difference in global heath".
National Institutes of Health. Retrieved July 29, Forewords by James W. Republican Congressman Jack Kemp and Republican Senator William Roth had nearly won passage of a major tax cut during Carter's presidency, but Carter had prevented passage of the bill due to concerns about the deficit. As Democrats controlled the House of Representatives, passage of any bill would require the support of some House Democrats in addition to the support of congressional Republicans. In July , the Senate voted in favor of the tax cut bill favored by Reagan, and the House subsequently approved the bill in a vote.
With Donald Regan taking over as Chief of Staff in , the Reagan administration made simplification of the tax code the central focus of its second term domestic agenda. The net result was the removal of six million poor Americans from the income tax roll and a reduction of income tax liability at all income levels. Reagan prioritized tax cuts over spending cuts, arguing that lower revenue would eventually require lower spending.
Reagan experienced several legislative successes in his first year in office, but his attempts to cut federal domestic spending after met increasing congressional resistance. The number of federal civilian employees rose during Reagan's tenure, from 2. The commission rejected Social Security privatization and other major changes to the program, but recommended expanding the Social Security base by including exempt federal and nonprofit employees , raising Social Security taxes, and reducing some payments.
These recommendations were enacted in the Social Security Amendments of , which received bipartisan support. As Reagan was unwilling to match his tax cuts with cuts to defense spending or Social Security, rising deficits became an issue. Reagan never submitted a balanced budget during his time in office. In an effort to lower the national debt, Congress passed the Gramm—Rudman—Hollings Balanced Budget Act , which called for automatic spending cuts if Congress was unable to eliminate deficits through the regular budget-making process.
Reagan took office in the midst of poor economic conditions, as the country experienced stagflation , a phenomenon in which both inflation and unemployment were high. Volcker sought to fight inflation by pursuing a policy of "tight money" in which interest rates were set a high level. Greenspan raised interest rates in another attempt to curb inflation, setting off a stock market crash in October known as " Black Monday ," but the markets stabilized and recovered in the following weeks.
After the vote, Reagan announced that the strikers would be fired if they did not return to work within forty-eight hours. After the deadline passed, Reagan fired over 10, air traffic controllers, while approximately 40 percent of the union members returned to work. Reagan's handling of the strike was strongly criticized by union leaders, but it won the approval of his conservative base of voters and others in the public.
With the assent of Reagan's sympathetic National Labor Relations Board appointees, many companies also won wage and benefit cutbacks from unions, especially in the manufacturing sector. Reagan sought to loosen federal regulation of economic activities, and he appointed key officials who shared this agenda. According to historian William Leuchtenburg , by , the Reagan administration eliminated almost half of the federal regulations that had existed in Germain Depository Institutions Act deregulated savings and loan associations and allowed banks to provide adjustable-rate mortgages.
Reagan also eliminated numerous government positions and dismissed numerous federal employees, including the entire staff of the Employment and Training Administration. Secretary of the Interior James Watt implemented policies designed to open up federal territories to oil drilling and surface mining.
After the passage of the Garn—St. Germain Depository Institutions Act, savings and loans associations engaged in riskier activities, and the leaders of some institutions embezzled funds. Measuring by money, [or] by the misallocation of national resources The s saw the highest rate of immigration to the United States since the s, and the proportion of the foreign-born population reached its highest level since the s.
The bill was also contained provisions designed to enhance security measures at the Mexico—United States border. Very soon many of these men and women will be able to step into the sunlight and, ultimately, if they choose, they may become Americans. Not long after being sworn into office, Reagan declared more militant policies in the " War on Drugs ". Reagan was largely unable to enact his ambitious social policy agenda, which included a federal ban on abortions and an end to desegregation busing.
In , Reagan signed a bill extending the Voting Rights Act for 25 years after a grass-roots lobbying and legislative campaign forced him to abandon his plan to ease that law's restrictions. Day as a federal holiday. Reagan had argued that the legislation infringed on states' rights and the rights of churches and business owners. No civil rights legislation for gay individuals passed during Reagan's tenure. Many in the Reagan administration, including Communications Director Pat Buchanan , were hostile to the gay community, as were many religious leaders who were important allies to the administration.
Everett Koop advocated for a public health campaign designed to reduce the spread of AIDS by raising awareness and promoting the use of condoms, Reagan favored rejected Koop's proposals in favor of abstinence-only sex education. Citing national security concerns, the president's national security team pressed for more surveillance power early during Reagan's first term. Their recommendations were based upon the premise that the federal government's intelligence and counterintelligence capabilities had been weakened by presidents Carter and Ford.
This presidential directive broadened the power of the government's intelligence community ; mandated rules for spying on United States citizens, permanent residents, and on anyone within the United States; and also directed the Attorney General and others to create further policies and procedures for what information intelligence agencies can collect, retain, and share. In the mid-term elections , Democrats retained a majority of the House and won control of the Senate for the first time since the elections.
However, Senate Republicans faced a difficult map that year, as they had to defend 22 of the 34 seats up for election. Republican losses in the Senate were concentrated in the South and in the farm states. In March , Reagan introduced the Strategic Defense Initiative SDI , a defense project that would have used ground- and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. Reagan believed that this defense shield could make nuclear war impossible. Under a policy that came to be known as the Reagan Doctrine , the Reagan administration provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist resistance movements in an effort to " rollback " Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
The Soviet Union announced it would withdraw from Afghanistan in , but the U. The Reagan administration placed a high priority on the Central America and the Caribbean Sea , which it saw as a key front in the Cold War. Reagan and his foreign policy team were particularly concerned about the potential influence of Cuba on countries such as Grenada , Nicaragua , and El Salvador. To counter the influence of Cuba and the Soviet Union, Reagan launched the Caribbean Basin Initiative , an economic program designed to aid countries opposed to Communism.
He also authorized covert measures, such as the arming of Nicaragua's Contras , in order to minimize Cuban and Soviet influence in the region. In , pro-Communist forces led a coup in the Caribbean island of Grenada. After learning that Cuban construction workers were building an airfield on Grenada, Reagan dispatched approximately 5, U. After two days of fighting that resulted in the deaths of nineteen Americans, forty-five Grenadans, and fifty-nine Cubans, the left-wing government of Grenada was overthrown. In , a group of left-wing rebels in Nicaragua known as the Sandinistas overthrew the president of Nicaragua and installed Daniel Ortega as the country's leader.
Casey to arm the right-wing Contras. Congress, which favored negotiations between the Contras and Sandinista, passed the Boland Amendment , prohibiting the CIA and Defense Department from using their budgets to provide aid to the Contras. Still intent on supporting the Contras, the Reagan administration raised funds for the Contras from private donors and foreign governments.
During his second term, Reagan sought to find a way procure the release of seven American hostages held by Hezbollah , a Lebanese paramilitary group supported by Iran. The Reagan administration decided to sell American arms to Iran, then engaged in the Iran—Iraq War , in hopes that Iran would pressure Hezbollah to release the hostages. On the initiative of Oliver North , an aide on the National Security Council, the Reagan administration redirected the proceeds from the missile sales to the Contras. Reagan initially denied any wrongdoing, but on November 25 he announced that Poindexter and North had left the administration and that he would form the Tower Commission to investigate the transactions.
A few weeks later, Reagan asked a panel of federal judges to appoint a special prosecutor who would conduct a separate investigation, and the panel chose Lawrence Walsh. The Tower Commission, chaired by former Republican Senator John Tower , released a report in February that confirmed that the administration had traded arms for hostages and sent the proceeds of the weapons sales to the Contras. The report laid most of the blame for the operation on North, Poindexter, and McFarlane, but it was also critical of Regan and other White House staffers. As angry as I may be about activities undertaken without my knowledge, I am still accountable for those activities.
The administration's credibility was also badly damaged on the international stage, as it had violated its own arms embargo on Iran. The investigations into the Iran—Contra scandal continued after Reagan left office, but were effectively halted when President George H. Bush pardoned Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger before his trial began. Three different Soviet leaders died between and , leaving the Soviets with an unstable leadership until Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in As his influence on domestic affairs waned during his second term, Reagan increasingly focused on relations with the Soviet Union.
Reagan's personal mission was to achieve a world free of nuclear weapons, which according to Jack F. Various issues, including intelligence operations performed by both countries and tensions in Germany and Afghanistan, threatened to forestall the possibility of an agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union. With the framework for an agreement in place, Reagan and Gorbachev met at the Washington Summit.
The treaty also established an inspections regime designed to ensure that both parties honored the agreement. A new era of trade and openness between the two powers commenced, and the U. A journalist asked the president if he still considered the Soviet Union the evil empire. The Cold War was unofficially declared over at the Malta Summit the following month. A civil war had broken out in Lebanon in , and both Israel and Syria undertook military action within Lebanon in Reagan sympathized with Israeli's desire to defeat PLO forces that had struck Israel from Lebanon, but he pressured Israel to end its invasion as casualties mounted and Israeli forces approached the Lebanese capital of Beirut.
As Israel delayed a full withdrawal and violence continued in Lebanon, Reagan arranged for a multinational force , including U. Marines , to serve as peacekeepers in Lebanon. In reaction to the role Israel and the United States played in the Lebanese Civil War, a Shia militant group known as Hezbollah began to take American hostages, holding eight Americans by the middle of In response to the U. Stating that there was "irrefutable proof" that Libya had directed the "terrorist bombing," Reagan authorized the use of force against the country.
In the late evening of April 15, , the United States launched a series of airstrikes on ground targets in Libya. Britain's prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, allowed the U. Air Force to use Britain's air bases to launch the attack, on the justification that the UK was supporting America's right to self-defense under Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. During Ronald Reagan's presidency South Africa continued to use a non-democratic system of government based on racial discrimination, known as apartheid , in which the minority of white South Africans exerted nearly complete legal control over the lives of the non-white majority of the citizens.
In the early s the issue had moved to the center of international attention as a result of events in the townships and outcry at the death of Stephen Biko. Reagan administration policy called for " constructive engagement " with the apartheid government of South Africa. In opposition to the condemnations issued by the US Congress and public demands for diplomatic or economic sanctions, Reagan made relatively minor criticisms of the regime, which was otherwise internationally isolated, and the US granted recognition to the government.
South Africa's military was then engaged in an occupation of Namibia and proxy wars in several neighboring countries, in alliance with Savimbi's UNITA. Reagan administration officials saw the apartheid government as a key anti-communist ally. By late , facing hostile votes from Congress on the issue, Reagan made an "abrupt reversal" on the issue and proposed sanctions on the South African government, including an arms embargo. By , under Reagan's successor George H. Bush, the new South African government of F.
During his presidential campaign, Reagan proposed the creation of a common market in North America. Once in office, Reagan signed the Trade and Tariff Act of , which granted the president " fast track " authority in negotiating free trade agreements. Reagan made 25 international trips to 26 different countries on four continents —Europe, Asia, North America, and South America—during his presidency.
He is perhaps best remembered for his speeches at the 40th anniversary of the Normandy landings , for his impassioned speech at the Berlin Wall , his summit meetings with Mikhail Gorbachev , and riding horses with Queen Elizabeth II at Windsor Park. At the time of his inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to be inaugurated as President age John Hutton, has said that Reagan "absolutely" did not "show any signs of dementia or Alzheimer's" during his presidency. On July 13, , Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon , causing the first-ever invocation of the Acting President clause of the 25th Amendment.
Reagan's approval ratings fell after his first year in office, but they bounced back when the United States began to emerge from recession in Though Hart won several primaries, Mondale ultimately won the nomination. Down in the polls, Mondale selected Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate in hopes of galvanizing support for his campaign, thus making Ferraro the first major party vice presidential nominee in U. The budget will be squeezed.
Taxes will go up. And anyone who says they won't is not telling the truth to the American people. Reagan, meanwhile, generally declined to offer new legislative proposals for his re-election campaign, instead focusing on events like the U. His apparent confused and forgetful behavior was evident to his supporters; they had previously known him clever and witty. Rumors began to circulate that he had Alzheimer's disease.
I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience," which generated applause and laughter, even from Mondale himself. Public opinion polling consistently showed a Reagan lead in the campaign, and Mondale was unable to shake up the race. Reagan remained publicly neutral in the Republican presidential primaries , but privately supported Vice President Bush over Senator Bob Dole. The Republican National Convention , which nominated Bush for president, also acted as a celebration of Reagan's presidency.
Following the Democratic National Convention , Dukakis led the polls by seventeen points, but Bush, aided by the INF Treaty and the strong economy, closed the gap as the election neared. Democrats tried to link Bush to the Iran-Contra Scandal, but Bush claimed that he had not been involved. The GOP effectively cast Dukakis as "soft" on crime and foreign policy issues, seizing on Dukakis's pardon of Willie Horton and his dispassionate response to a question regarding the death penalty.
In the presidential election , Bush defeated Dukakis, taking The election saw the lowest turnout of eligible voters since In the concurrent congressional elections, Democrats retained control of the House and the Senate. Since Reagan left office in , substantial debate has occurred among scholars, historians, and the general public surrounding his legacy.
Critics contend that Reagan's economic policies resulted in rising budget deficits,  a wider gap in wealth , and an increase in homelessness. Despite the continuing debate surrounding his legacy, many conservative and liberal scholars agree that Reagan has been the most influential president since Franklin Roosevelt, leaving his imprint on American politics, diplomacy, culture, and economics through his effective communication, dedicated patriotism and pragmatic compromising.
Heale, who finds that scholars now concur that Reagan rehabilitated conservatism, turned the nation to the right, practiced a considerably pragmatic conservatism that balanced ideology and the constraints of politics, revived faith in the presidency and in American exceptionalism , and contributed to victory in the Cold War.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the presidency of Ronald Reagan. Conservatism in the United States and Reagan Era. Ronald Reagan presidential campaign, and United States presidential election, Attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan. Domestic policy of the Ronald Reagan administration. Immigration to the United States. Foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration.
Latin America—United States relations. South Africa under apartheid. List of international presidential trips made by Ronald Reagan. United States presidential election, Retrieved May 15, Schulman and Julian E. Hinerman, "The search for scandal' in J. Morality and desire in the popular culture marketplace pp. Cook and Paul Gronke. Revisiting the meanings of trust in government and confidence in institutions.
Rightward bound pp Johnson and Joseph B. Tamney, "The Christian Right and the presidential election. The struggle to control the family, art, education, law, and politics in America Boom, Class, race, and the civil rights movement Retrieved February 27, Retrieved June 15, Retrieved 20 July Retrieved February 16, Retrieved May 30,The Biography Fully Revised Edition. Retrieved 24 August It's funny, people on the political left spent presonals years calling Reagan a bigot. High Peronals regan gay personals Youth Trends". I know that secular liberals don't want to hear religious arguments against same-sex marriage, but, if we're talking about Reagan and conservativeswe cannot exclude them. GDP is calculated for the calendar year. Garfield Chester A.